教師簡介

  • 兼任教授
  • Ralph Kirby

  • 02-2826-7000 ext.7323
  • rkirby@ym.edu.tw
  • 圖書資訊暨研究大樓6樓R619
  • 專業領域
  • Genomics and evolution
  • 研究方向
  • In recent years we carried out genomic research on Actinomycetes using DNA microarrays of the complete Streptomyces coelicolor genome in order to analyze genome evolution in the Streptomyces and spore producing Actinomycetales. This enabled the in vitro mapping of a conserved region present in the linear genome of Streptomyces coelicolor across the Actinomycetales, which was confirmed by recent in silico genomic analysis of new Actinomycete genomes. Furthermore, the presence of two genus specific conserved region on either side of this core was also found, which expands the information obtained by in silico complete genome comparisons. This research enabled the pinpointing of Streptomyces rimosus as a Streptomyces species with a novel genome structure. This was done in collaboration with the Streptomyces rimosus group at the University of Strathclyde, Scotland, UK.

    The major limitation of DNA microarrays as a tool is that genes novel to a target species are not detected or explored and producing new microarrays for new species is expensive. Therefore, as the cost of genome sequencing as decreased and with the help of the NYMU Genome center, we have moved on to targeting whole genome sequencing. The first genomes targeted were strains of Streptomyces rimosus again in collaboration with the University of Strathclyde, Scotland, UK. We sequenced a production strain of Streptomyces rimosus at NYMU Genome Center using 454 technology and this was followed by the wild-type strain and three further production strains. This is the first time to our knowledge that industrial production strains have been genome sequenced as a group. Streptomyces rimosus produces oxytetracycline and the titer increase from the wild-type to the final production strain isolated in the 1980's is about 2000 fold or more, depending on the culture conditions. All the changes in these strains were introduced by mutation and selection.

    Our genome sequencing of Streptomyces rimosus confirmed that the sequence divergence of this species from Streptomyces coelicolor, the microarray strain, was high. However, Streptomyces rimosus still retained a linear genome structure outline above that is present in all known sequenced Streptomyces and many other Actinomycetes. This confirms the limitation of the DNA microarray approach, although it remains much less labor intensive than whole genome sequencing, which requires extensive annotation to get good comparisons between genomes. We have published the Streptomyces rimosus wild-type genome and are still working on analyzing in parallel the four genome sequences from wild-type and production strains in order to determine why production of oxytetracyline is increased. Previous hypotheses to explain how such large increases in antibiotic production occur are 1) duplication of the production operon for the antibiotic; 2) deletion of other secondary metabolic pathways to allow increased energy flow into the desired pathway; and 3) blocking of specific pathways to shunt precursors into the desired pathway. Comparison of the genomes fro m the wild-type and production strains showed that, although there were limited deletions that fitted hypothesis 2, mainly secondary metabolic pathways remained untouched by deleted; furthermore, deletions did not seem to be affecting metabolite flow either, as is proposed by hypothesis 3. Finally, no duplications of the oxytetraclycine operon were found. The increase in oxytetracycline productions seems to rely on point mutations, possibly affecting promoter activity.

    We next expanded out interest into another unusual group of Streptomyces. Almost all Streptomyces are non-pathogenic. In terms of plants, Streptomyces scabies and related species are well known as pathogens of dicotyledonous plants. In terms of human and animal pathogenesis, only Streptomyces somaliensis, Streptomyces sudanensis and a few other related species have been identified as affecting humans. These species cause actinomycetoma or more specifically streptomycetoma in many dry regions of the world, which is very difficult to treat and results in the amputation of limbs from many patients. Our aim was that by obtaining the genome sequences of these pathogens, we will be able to develop new approaches to preventing and curing streptomycetomas. We have successfully sequenced Streptomyces somaliensis and Streptomyces sudanensis by 454 sequencing. These closely related but by no means identical species have the smallest genomes of any linear genome Streptomyces at about 5 Mb. Most Streptomyces have linear genomes of 7 to 8 Mb, with some being as large as 10+ Mb (Streptomyces scabies being a case in point). Linear has not been proved biochemically, but the presence of Tpg, Tap and Ttr genes very close to the end of their linear genomes is highly indicative of linearity. The unusual truncated length of these two genomes fits the idea that these are species that are regular pathogens of mammals and not just opportunistic pathogens. Genome shortening is characteristic of pathogens, especially obligatory pathogens. Interestingly, unlike the situation in Streptomyces scabies, no pathogenic island or islands could be identified. This created a problem in terms of identifying genes involved in human pathogenesis. Such genes ought to be present in both Streptomyces somaliensis and Streptomyces sudanensis, but absent from other Streptomyces. Unfortunately this list was long at >500 genes. In order to reduce this number we next genome sequenced Streptomyces fradiae, the closest available relative to Streptomyces somaliensis and Streptomyces sudanensis, and also the production strain for neomycin. The genome size of this species is relatively normal at about 7Mb and shows high sequence similarity to the pathogenic species. Analysis is continuing at present. The opportunity arose to carry out 3rd generation sequencing at a very good price and we did this with our remain streptomycetoma isolated stain which lacks a species title. This was very successful and we obtain a single 5.3 Mb contig plus two minor contigs (30kb and 16 kb, possibly plasmids). We are now using this single contig to order the contigs available for Streptomyces somaliensis and Streptomyces sudanensis. We hope in the future to 3rd generation sequencing to close these contigs.

  • 教授科目
  • Life Science Ⅰ-General Biology, 2nd semester
    Life Science Ⅲ-Introduction to Ecology and Evolution
    Basic Scientific Writing in English
    Advanced Scientific Writing in English
    Forensic Molecular Genetics
    Seminar
  • 經歷
  • 2017-present
    Adjunct Professor, Department of Life Sciences and Institute of Genome Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2003-2017
    Professor, Department of Life Sciences and Institute of Genetics, National Yang-Ming University
  • July 2000-June 2001
    One year of sabbatical leave at National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.
  • 1995
    Three months sabbatical leave at National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.
  • 1993
    Six months of sabbatical leave at National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.
  • 1990-2003
    Professor of Microbiology, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa.
  • 1983-1989
    Senior Lecturer, University of Cape Town.
  • 1980-1983
    Lecturer, Department of Microbiology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa
  • 1975-1979
    Post-Doctoral Research Fellow in the Department of Bacteriology, University of Bristol, Bristol, England financed by and supported by Glaxo Research Ltd, UK under Professor Sir Mark Richmond.
  • 1972-1975
    John Innes Trustee Research Student at the John Innes Institute, Colney Lane, Norwich, England. PhD supervised by Professor Sir D. A. Hopwood.
  • 學歷
  • 2004-2009
    LLM in Intellectual Property (UNISA), Specializing in Patents and Molecular Biology, the WWW and Intellectual Property, Design Rights and Molecular Biological Properties and International Trade Mark Rights
  • 1997-2003
    LLB (UNISA), Specializing in Intellectual Property and DNA Profiling in Criminal Procedure (South Africa)
  • 1995
    Pr. Nat. Sci., Registered Professional Natural Scientist in South Africa from 1995 in Microbiology & Genetics.
  • 1972-1975
    PhD (UEA), Genetic studies on Streptomyces coelicolor Plasmid One (University of East Anglia, England)
  • 1969-1972
    MA (Cantab), Genetics (Cambridge, England)

代表著作

  • Huang T-W, Chen T-L, Chen Y-T, Lauderdale T-L, Liao T-L, Lee Y-T, Chen C-P, Liu Y-M, Lin A-C, Chang Y-H, Wu K-M, Kirby R, Lai J-F, Tan M-C, Siu L-K, Chang C-M, Fung C-P, Tsai S-F. Copy number change of NDM-1 sequence in a multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate. PLoS One. 2013 Apr 29;8(4):e62774. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062774. Print 2013.
  • Kirby R, Herron P, Hoskisson PA, Hunter I. Draft Genome Sequence of the Streptomyces rimosus Type Strain ATCC 10970, the Producer of Oxytetracycline. J. Bacteriol. (2013) 7;1(2):e0006313. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00063-13
  • Tai L-R, Chou C-W, Lee I-F, Kirby R, Lin A. The quantatitive assessment of the role played by basic amino acid clusters in the nuclear uptake of human ribosomal protein L7. Experimental Cell Research (2013) 319:367-375.
  • Wu C-Y, Chen Y-F, Wang C-H, Kao C-H, Zhuang H-W, Chen C-C, Chen L-K, Kirby R, Wei Y-H, Tsai S-F, and Tsai T-F. A persistent level of Cisd2 extends healthy lifespan and delays aging in mice. Human Molecular Genetics (2012) 21:3956-3968.
  • Kirby R, Sangal V, Tucker NP, Zakrzewska-Czerwińska J, Wierzbicka K, Chu C-J, Chandra G, Fahal AH, Goodfellow M and Hoskisson PA. The draft genome sequence of the human pathogen Streptomyces somaliensis, a significant cause of actinomycetoma. J. Bacteriol. (2012) 194:3544-3545.
  • Kirby R. Chromosome Diversity and Similarity within the Actinomycetales. FEMS Microbiol Lett. (2011) 319:1-10.
  • Kirby R, Herron P, Hoskisson P. Analysis of developmental gene conservation in the Actinomycetales using DNA/DNA microarray comparisons. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology (2011) 99:159-177
  • Kirby R, Chen C. Genome Architechture. In Streptomyces: Molecular biology and biotechnology, Caister Academic Press, Editor Paul Dyson, (2010) Chapter 1.
  • Chou CW, Tai LR, Kirby R, Lee IF, Lin A. Importin β3 mediates the nuclear import of human ribosomal protein L7 through its interaction with the multifaceted basic clusters of L7. FEBS Lett. (2010) 584:4151-4156.
  • Ying-Fang Sun, Kirby R. The brain imaging finding of dyslexia. Journal of the Taiwan Pediatric Association. Pefiatr Neonatal (2010) 51:89-96
  • Ying-Fang Sun and Ralph Kirby. Candidate genes for dyslexia by an in Silico approach. Asian Journal of Health and Information Sciences (2009) 4:81-92.
  • Chen YF, Kao CH, Kirby R, Tsai TF. Cisd2 mediates mitochondrial integrity and life span in mammals. Autophagy. (2009) 5:1043-1045.
  • Shu HY, Fung CP, Liu YM, Wu KM, Chen YT, Li LH, Liu TT, Kirby R, Tsai SF. Genetic diversity of capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis in Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates. Microbiology (2009) 155:4170-4183.
  • Wu K-M, Li L-H, Yan J-J, Tsao N., Liao T-L, Tsai L-C, Fung C-P, Chen H-J, Liu Y-M, Wang J-T, Fang C-T, Chang S-C, Shu H-Y, Liu T-T, Chen Y-T, Shiau Y-R, Lauderdale T-L, Su I-J, Kirby R. and Tsai S-F Genome Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of Klebsiella pneumoniae NTUH-K2044, a Strain Causing Liver Abscess and Meningitis J. Bacteriol. (2009) 191 4492-4501.
  • Hsiao Nai-hua and Ralph Kirby. Two-component signal transduction systems in Streptomyces and related organisms studied using DNA comparative microarray analysis. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology. (2009) 95:189-206.
  • Ralph Kirby, Teng-Kuei Gan, Emma Tilley, Paul Herron, Iain Hunter. The genome of Streptomyces rimosus subsp. rimosus shows a novel structure compared to other Streptomyces using DNA/DNA microarray analysis. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology (2008) 94:173-86.
  • Hsiao Nai-hua & Ralph Kirby. Comparative genomics of Streptomyces avermitilis, Streptomyces cattleya, Streptomyces maritimus and Kitasatospora aureofaciens using a Streptomyces coelicolor microarray system. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology (2008) 93, 1-25.
  • Lee LF, Chen YJ, Kirby R, Chen C, Chen CW. A multidrug efflux system is involved in colony growth in Streptomyces lividans. Microbiology. (2007) 153, 924-34.
  • Ko, J.-R., Wu, J.-I., Kirby, R., Lin A. Mapping the essential structures of human ribosomal protein L7 for nuclear entry, ribosome assembly and function. FEBS Letters (2006) 580, 3804-3810.
  • Kirby, R. Thermophilic Actinomycetes and Lignin Degradation. Advances in Applied Microbiology (2006) 58, 125-168
  • Clarke, A.M., Kirby, R., Rose, P.D. Molecular microbial ecology of lignocellulose mobilisation as a carbon source in mine drainage wastewater treatment. Water SA (2004) 30, 658-661.
  • Kirby, R. DNA Evidence in South Africa: Fallacies and the Future. Obiter (2004) 25, 386-405.
  • Lai, W-L, Chou, L-Y, Ting, C-Y, Kirby, R, Tsai, Y-C, Wang, A, H-J, Liaw, S-H. The functional role of the binuclear meta; center of D-aminoacylase. Journal of Biological Chemistry (2004) 279, 13962–13967.
  • EOLSS – UNESCO Kirby, R, [2003], “Microbial Pathogenesis and Antibiotics” in 6.51.4, edited by R. Kirby, in Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO, Eolss Publishers, Oxford ,UK, [https://www.eolss.net]
  • EOLSS – UNESCO Kirby, R, [2003], “Prokaryote Genetics” in 6.51.4, edited by R. Kirby, in Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO, Eolss Publishers, Oxford ,UK, [https://www.eolss.net]
  • EOLSS – UNESCO Kirby, R, [2003], “Microbiology” in 6.51.4, edited by R. Kirby, in Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO, Eolss Publishers, Oxford ,UK, [https://www.eolss.net]
  • EOLSS – UNESCO Kirby, R, [2003], “Organelles and other Structures in Biology” in 6.51.2, edited by R. Kirby, in Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO, Eolss Publishers, Oxford ,UK, [https://www.eolss.net]
  • Davis, J.A., van Blerk, L.L., Kirby, R. & Hecht, T. — Genetic variation in the mud crab Scylla serrata (Forskål, 1775) (Crustacea: Portunidae) in South African estuaries. African Zoology (2003) 38, 343–350.
  • Kirby, R. Pitfalls of DNA profiling complete national populations for forensic purposes. Nature (London) Correspondence (2002) 419, 247.
  • Chen, CW, Huang, C-H, Lee, H-H, Tsai, H-H, Kirby, R. Once the circle has been broken: Dynamics and evolution of Streptomyces chromosomes. Trends in Genetics (2002) 18, 522-529.
  • EOLSS – UNESCO Kirby, R, [2002], “DNA as the Genetic Material” in 6.51.1 in 6.51, edited by R. Kirby, in Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO, Eolss Publishers, Oxford ,UK, [https://www.eolss.net]
  • EOLSS – UNESCO Kirby, R, [2002], “Fundamentals of Life” in 6.51, edited by R. Kirby, in Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO, Eolss Publishers, Oxford ,UK, ISBN: 0-9534944-5-4 (hdbk), ISBN: 0-9534944-6-2 (CD), ISBN: 0-9534944-7-0 (The complete set). [https://www.eolss.net]
  • Kirby, R & Downing, T. The principles and problems of DNA profiling for legal purposes in South Africa. Obiter (2001) 22, 8-15.
  • Richner S, Meiring J & Kirby R. DNA profiling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and the detection of a high level of genetic diversity. Electrophoresis (1999) 20, 1800-1806.
  • Nxomani C, Ribbink AJ, Kirby R. DNA profiling of Tilapia guinasana, a species endemic to a single sinkhole, to determine the genetic divergence between color forms. Electrophoresis (1999) 20 1781-1785.
  • Kharsany , Hoosen AA, Kiepiela P, Kirby R & Sturm AW. Phylogenetic analysis of Calymmatobacterium granulomatis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Journal of Medical Microbiology (1999) 48, 841-847.
  • da Serra, M., & Kirby, R. Development of Pleurotus ("Oyster") mushroom production in southern Africa using alien wood species as lignocellulose substrate. The International Journal of Mushroom Sciences (1999) 3, 49-55.
  • Krallis, M. & Kirby, R. Development of a PCR/Southern dot blot based detection system for the presence of genes involved in beta-lactam biosynthesis. Actinomycetologica (1998) 12, 15-28.
  • Chambers, R., McQuaid, C. & Kirby, R, RAPDs fingerprinting of southern African intertidal limpets, Siphonaria (Pulmonata: Gastropoda) with implications for the evolution of larval development. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology (1998) 227, 49-66.
  • Kirby, R. A critical assessment of the new South African Genetically Modified Organisms Bill. BINAS News UNIDO (1997) 3, 12-14.
  • Kirby, R., Downing T. & Schwellnus, T. A critical assessment of the Genetically Modified Organisms Bill. Obiter (1997) 18, 89-98.
  • Richner, S.M., Miring, J. & Kirby, R. Differentiation between urban and rural populations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using randomly amplified DNA - polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) Electrophoresis (1997) 1570-1576.
  • Kirby, R. & Da Serra, M. The utilization of invader Acacia woods for the production of the mushroom Pluribus. Food Processing Technologies for Africa: Emerging Technology Series, UNIDO. Ed Direr, H.A. (1997) 175-177.
  • Chambers, R., McQueen, C. & Kirby, R. Determination of the genetic diversity of the inertial limpets, Siphon aria (Gastropod, Culminate) by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of total cellular proteins. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology (1996) 201, 1-11.
  • Kirby, R. Genetic Diversity in South Africa - Conservation and sustainable development. Genetic Engineering Monitor UNIDO, (1995) 2, 1-7.
  • Baxter, E., Rose, P.D. & Kirby, R. Age and population group related distribution of enteropathogens in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Letter in Applied Microbiology (1994) 19, 442-445.
  • Hepburn, H.R., Jones, G.E., & Kirby R. Introgression between Apis mellifera capensis Escholtz and Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier: the sting hormones. Apidologie (1994) 25, 557-565.
  • Nxomani, C.D., Ribbink, A.J. & Kirby R. Differentiation of isolated threatened fish populations in dolomitic water by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of total proteins. Biological Conservation (1994) 69, 185-189.
  • Hatfill, S.J. & Kirby, R. normal mtDNA length polymorphisms in patients with the myelodysplastic syndrome. Blood (1994) 84, 314.
  • Hughes, FL, Rybicki, EP, Kirby, R. Complete nucleotide sequence of sugarcane streak Monogeminivirus. Arch Virol. 1993;132,171-82.
  • Gardee, Y. & Kirby R. The incidence of inducible MLS-resistance in methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in clinical isolates from the Eastern Cape area of South Africa. Letters in Applied Microbiology (1993) 17, 264-268.
  • Hatfill, S.J., Le Cock, C.J. & Kirby R. A role for mitochondrial DNA in the pathogenesis of radiation induced MDS and secondary leukemia. Leukemia Research (1993) 17, 907-913
  • Kirby, R. The isolation and characterization of antibiotic biosynthesis genes. Biotechnology Advances (1992) 10, 561-576.
  • Hatfill, S.J., Bohm, L., Downing, T.G. & Kirby, R. Mitochondrial DNA mutations in the myelodysplastic syndrome Lancet (1992) 340, 370.
  • Kirby, R. Evolutionary origin of Class A and Class C beta lactamases. Journal of Molecular Evolution (1992) 34, 345-350.
  • Bourn, W.R. & Kirby, R. Time dependent changes in the DNA-binding proteins of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Actinomycetologica (1991) 5, 10-13.
  • Hughes, F.L., Rybicki, E.P., Kirby, R. & von Wechmar, M.B. Characterization of the Sugar Cane Streak agent as a distinct Geminivirus. Intervirology (1991) 32, 19-27.
  • Hart, S., Kirby, R. & Woods, D.R. Structure of the Rhodococcus gene encoding pigment production in Escherichia coli. Journal of General Microbiology (1990) 136, 1357-1363.
  • Kirby, R. Evolutionary origin of aminoglycoside phosphotransferase resistance genes. Journal of Molecular Evolution (1990) 30:489-492.
  • Hatfill, S.J., Kirby, R., Hanley, M., Rybicki, E.P. & Bohm, L. Hyperprolactinemia in acute myeloid leukaemia and indications of ectopic expression of human prolactin in bast cells of a patient of subtype M4. Leukaemia Research (1990) 14, 57-62.
  • Hatfill, S.J., Williamson, C., Kirby, R. & van Wechmar, M.B. Identification and localization of aphid lethal paralysis virus particles in thin tissue sections of Rhopalosiphum padi by in situ nucelic acid hybridization. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology (1990) 55, 265-271.
  • Hill, R.T., Hart, S. Illing, N., Ravenscroft, N., Kirby, R. & Woods, D.R. Cloning and expression of Rhodococcus pigment genes in Escherichia coli. Journal of General Microbiology (1989) 135, 1505-1513.
  • Clarke, B. Rybicki, E.P., Kirby, R. & von Wechmar, M.B. Characterisation of Southern African isolates of Maize Streak Virus: differentiation of three isolates by serology and their typing by restriction mapping. Intervirology (1989) 30, 96-101.
  • Clarke, B., Rybicki, E.P. & Kirby, R. Evolution of natural Maize Streak Virus isolates in Southern Africa. Intervirology (1989) 30, 90-95.
  • Hill, R.T., Illing, N. Kirby, R. & Woods, D.R. Development of pRL591, a Streptomyces - Escherichia coli positive selection shuttle vector. FEMS Microbiology Letters (1989) 57, 223-226.
  • Hromic, A. & Kirby, R. Isolation and study of two mutants of Streptomyces cattleya affecting DNA repair and instability. FEMS Microbiology Letters (1989) 57, 139-143.
  • Becker I.I. & Kirby, R. A study of Hake populations using restriction endonuclease analysis of the mitochondrial DNA. A practical application of molecular biology to a South African taxonomic problem. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa (1988) 46:4, 313-316.
  • Becker, I.I., Grant, W.S., Kirby, R. & Robb, F.T. Evolutionary divergence between sympatric species of southern African Hakes, Merluccius capensis and Merluccius paradoxus. II. Mitochondrial DNA sequence divergence. Heredity (1988) 61, 21-30.
  • Usdin, K. & Kirby, R. Cloning of repeated DNA sequences from Streptomyces cattleya. FEMS Microbiology Letters (1988) 50, 201-205.
  • Pretorius I-M, Rawlings, D.E., O'Neill, E.G., Jones, W.A., Kirby, R. & Woods, D.R. Nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the nitogenase iron protein of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans Journal of Bacteriology (1987) 487, 367-370.
  • Kirby, R. & Rybicki, E.P. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) as a means of taxonomic analysis of Streptomyces and related organisms. Journal of General Microbiology (1986) 132, 1891-1894.
  • Walter, C.B., O'Neill, E. & Kirby, R. "ELISA" as an aid to the identification of fish and molluscan prey in birds in marine ecosystems. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology (1986) 96, 97-102.
  • Coyne, V.E. & Kirby, R. VC11: an actinophage virulent to Streptomyces cattleya and Streptomyces olivaceus. Intervirology (1986) 25, 61-68.
  • Usdin, K. & Kirby, R. The loss of a large DNA fragment. Is associated with the aerial mycelium negative (Amy-) phenotype of Streptomyces cattleya. Journal of General Microbiology (1985) 131, 979-981.
  • Kirby, R. & Usdin, K. The isolation and restriction mapping of a miniplasmid from the Actinomycete Nocardia corallina. FEMS Microbiology Letters (1985) 27, 57-59.
  • Usdin, K., Gertsch, K. & Kirby R. Evidence for the wide distribution of repetitive DNAA sequences in the genus Streptomyces. Journal of Molecular Evolution (1984) 20, 20-30.
  • Coyne, V.E., Usdin, K. & Kirby, R. The effect of inhibitors of DNA repair on the genetic stability of Streptomyces cattleya. Journal of General Microbiology (1984) 130, 887-892.
  • Hanssen, R. & Kirby, R. The induction by N'-Methyl-N'Nitro-N'nitrosoguanidine of multiple closely linked mutations in Streptomyces bikiniensis ISP 5235 affecting streptomycin resistance and streptomycin biosynthesis. FEMS Microbiology Letters (1983) 13, 79-82.
  • Kirby, R., Lewis, E. and Botha, C. A survey of Streptomyces species for covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA using a variety of methods. FEMS Microbiology Letters (1982) 13, 79-82.
  • Kirby, R. & Lewis E. Unstable genetic elements affecting streptomycin resistance in the streptomycin producing organisms Streptomyces griseus NCIB 8506 and Streptomyces bikiniensis ISP 5235. Journal of General Microbiology (1981) 122, 351-355.
  • Kirby, R. & Wotton, S.F. Restriction studies on the SCP2 plasmid of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). FEMS Microbiology Letters (1979) 6, 321-324.
  • Flett, F., Wotton, S.F. & Kirby, R. A common host specificity in the restriction modification of a bacteriophage by three distinct Streptomyces species. Journal of General Microbiology (1979) 110, 465-467.
  • Kirby R. An unstable genetic element affecting the production of the antibiotic holomycin by Streptomyces clavuligerus. FEMS Microbiology Letters (1978) 3, 283-286.
  • Kirby, R. Genetic mapping of Streptomyces clavuligerus. FEMS Microbiology Letters (1978) 3, 177-180.
  • Kirby, R. & Hopwood, D.A. Genetic determination of methylenomycin synthesis and resistance by the SCP1 plasmid of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Journal of General Microbiology (1977) 98, 239-252.
  • Kirby, R., Wright, L.F. & Hopwood, D.A. Plasmid-determined antibiotic synthesis and resistance in Streptomyces coelicolor. Nature (London), (1975) 254, 265-267.